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PDF richard thornley option brokers [ KB ]. Executive summary Introduction Definition Theoretical musing. The future Concluding comments Appendix A: CBF richard thornley option brokers allocations Community broadcasting grant allocations —99 to — I am grateful to my colleagues, Paula Pyburne and Jonathan Chowns for their constructive comments on a previous draft of this paper. The term community media refers to radio, television and print services. Any or all of those forms of community media tend to emerge when communities are denied a voice for their views.
In many countries they have provided a rallying point for protest and demands for rights. In post-apartheid South Africa, for example, community radio stations have richard thornley option brokers in an attempt to promote democracy as well as freedom of expression and diversity of broadcast content and ownership previously been denied in that country.
It would be drawing a long bow to equate the situation which led to the establishment of community radio in South Africa with that of Australia. Nevertheless it is possible to consider that the Australian community broadcasting sector, which emerged in the s, represented the demands of groups who felt that they were denied the opportunity to express their opinions or listen to alternative sources of entertainment.
These groups ranged from those who felt marginalised to those who were beginning to feel that traditional media sources were not acting in the interests of the people. They even included groups who just wanted to hear music that was different from that broadcast on commercial stations. In seeking to deliver such alternatives, broadcast community media has done much to enhance Australian cultural diversity. It does much also to furnish ordinary Australians with an opportunity to contribute to debate on social and political issues.
Community broadcasting can be seen therefore as an alternative medium to public service and commercial media. In his guide to good practice for community media operators, Steve Buckley defines community media:. They are present in all regions of the world as social movements and community-based richard thornley option brokers have sought a means to express their issues, concerns, cultures and languages.
Community media set out to create an alternative both to national public broadcasters, which are often under government control, and to private commercial media. Richard thornley option brokers provide communities with access to information and voice, facilitating community-level debate, information and knowledge sharing and input into public decisionmaking.
Community media is open to participation in program-making and management by members of the community. Often in defining community media commentators stress its development aspect.
This especially applies in descriptions of community radio which point out that despite richard thornley option brokers advent of recent technologies, radio remains the dominant communications medium across much of the world.
As the views in the box below also indicate, this is one reason that radio tends to be thought of as the most influential and accessible of the various community media sectors, and it applies whether a community radio station is situated in Colombia or in Australia.
Furthermore, individual community members and local institutions are the principal sources of support for its operation.
It is not a question of having more, but of being, that is the real mission of community radio stations in Canada. As noted above, community media has many labels.
It also comes in many guises. It is often referred to as citizen, participatory or grassroots media and many stations primarily stress the participatory aspect. Various academic commentators have attempted to outline the characteristics of community media. For Rodriguez, community media contest social codes, legitimise identities, institutionalise social relations and empower communities involved. Other richard thornley option brokers of community media see it as less confronting than Downing; as more of a transformative force.
It is viewed by some as richard thornley option brokers media, or media that is based on pluralism. That is media, which encourages anyone who wants to participate to do so.
The voluntary nature of community media encourages people to gain skills which promote democracy—speaking and listening, cooperation and equanimity.
Community media consciously adopt participatory decision-making structures and practices that promote a sense of belonging to and responsibility toward an organisation and its relationship with the wider community. For individuals community media cultivate a more deliberate approach to participation in public life, nurture social networks within and between richard thornley option brokers and potentially encourage innovative ways to think about democracy.
It is not the intention of this richard thornley option brokers to undertake extensive theoretical analysis of richard thornley option brokers community media sector. These are well worth considering and are discussed in the sections below. In a practical sense, community media empowers communities or groups by enabling dissemination of their ideas to a much larger audience.
In this role, community media challenges the status quo nature of mainstream media by providing a space where citizens can encounter, debate or experience alternative viewpoints and lifestyles. This is in stark contrast to the mainstream where voices of the elite have the power to set the agenda. Similarly, Nick Couldry from the London School of Economics asserts that community media is a weapon of the weak.
They see community media as placing power to challenge the dominant ideologies characteristic of mainstream media—despite the fact that that power may be minimal—in the hands of local citizens. There are a number of stark illustrations of how community media contribute to the empowerment of communities. For women in rural communities in developing countries, for example, community radio is able to provide a variety of health information—about breastfeeding, nutrition and the causes and possible solutions to health problems.
It can also inform people about their legal rights and provide programming which fosters self-respect and self-reliance. The commercial media appear:. Numerous examples of offerings that promote aspects of the overall national Australian culture are cited in one Griffith University study. Through its representation of—and active engagement with—many cultures, community radio has established itself as an important component in the Australian cultural landscape.
Their role in local communities is becoming increasingly important. The creation of local content facilitates the maintenance and representation of cultural tastes, pursuits and knowledge not catered for by other media.
The creation of Australian richard thornley option brokers and support for local artists is a key cultural role performed by community radio. As a Turkish focus group noted to the richard thornley option brokers, community radio helps to integrate people into Australian life:. Radio 2XX FM, which broadcasts in the Canberra region, richard thornley option brokers one example of the types of stations that deliver programs of interest to a number of groups.
Similarly, community radio is important in reflecting and maintaining Indigenous and other cultures. Richard thornley option brokers FM promotes reconciliation through the sharing of richard thornley option brokers information and breaking down barriers. Providing local services has been an acknowledged objective of broadcasting regulation in Australia.
In a study undertaken for the federal government argued in fact that from the beginning of Australian broadcasting the aim of serving local interest had been an integral part of planning and licensing decisions. The study maintained that authorities wanted to see radio and television ownership and programming controlled at the local level and that they wanted programming which catered for the particular needs and interests of communities within the service areas of radio and television stations.
In there was an expectation embedded in the provisions of the Broadcasting Services Act BSA that radio broadcasting programming should cater for the particular needs and interests of the communities in which stations were situated and that local radio should deal with matters of local significance. Despite this expectation, by it appeared that this tradition of commitment to localism had begun to diminish in regional areas.
The House of Representatives Standing Committee on Communications, Transport and the Arts inquiry into regional radio richard thornley option brokers Local Voices inquiry of concluded at that time that a richard thornley option brokers of technological, economic and regulatory developments in the commercial broadcasting industry had led to a situation where many local radio voices had been replaced by an increasing number of networked, pre-recorded, automated and syndicated programs.
The Government has since imposed local content obligations on commercial radio, but arguably the effect of these has been gradually diminished as successive legislation has reduced those requirements to a minimum. Indeed, some stakeholders have claimed each piece of legislation has worked richard thornley option brokers favour of operators rather than audiences.
One community broadcaster even disputes that the ABC truly provides local content:. Moreover, as the cartoon below suggests, it is not only academics who see community radio in terms of empowerment and a source of cultural maintenance and local information, community radio consistently sees these aims as integral to its existence. Print-based community media has been in existence for a long time, and its roles, such as keeping communities informed and contributing to the maintenance of identity among immigrant groups, have long been acknowledged.
A study by Janowitz infor example, concluded that levels of community integration and involvement were related to the attention communities paid to local newspapers. One author cites a recent example of richard thornley option brokers press as the Canadian publication Street feat: There has not been much attention paid in Australia to press which functions outside the mainstream. These publications have included the Radical, established inAustralia's richard thornley option brokers regular socialist newspaper, and the Industrial Workers of the World publication, Direct Action, which opposed working class involvement in World War I.
A study by academic Susan Forde in identified 28 alternative press publications in Australia. Commercial and public service, or national radio broadcasting began in Australia in the s.
Australia's social, political and cultural landscape began to change and people wanted the Australian media, in turn, to reflect these changes. Many specialist groups, including ethnic and Indigenous communities, political activists, students, academics richard thornley option brokers classical music consumers, began to lobby for their own radio broadcasting licences.
An Australian Broadcasting Control Board inquiry richard thornley option brokers broadcasting services generally, which commenced inand which was later expanded to include consideration of proposals to introduce FM radio, addressed the issue of public broadcasting, as it was then labelled. The reason cited in the Explanatory Memorandum to the BSA for this change was that the name better reflected the community based nature of the services.
Rather it was the previous conservative McMahon Coalition government and Postmaster-General Alan Hulme that embraced the idea, and they did so largely because introducing public broadcasting was cheaper than expanding the ABC. It fell to the Whitlam government to develop the concept and licence the first stations since it won power before its political opponents could put the idea into practice. The Whitlam Government introduced the first experimental community broadcasting licences in Australia in September These went to classical music groups in Sydney and Melbourne and to the first community station to commence richard thornley option brokers, station 5UV now known as Radio Adelaide at the University of Adelaide.
In these community broadcasters formed the Public Broadcasting Association of Australia PBAAa body through which they could more formally approach government. There richard thornley option brokers considerable opposition to the establishment of the community broadcasting sector, particularly from commercial radio interests.
One argument used by the commercial sector was that there was insufficient broadcasting spectrum available to accommodate more radio stations. It was a different story for community television, which, while its origins can be traced to the establishment of video production equipment and training centres in the s, still took some time to begin operation. Other test broadcasts followed the transmissions and the first community television began broadcasting in Melbourne. In a Parliamentary inquiry sixth channel inquiry into what should be done with broadcasting spectrum that had been notionally reserved for educational television—the so-called sixth channel—recommended that the spectrum should be allocated temporarily to community television until a decision was made following a further review in In May the Government withdrew the permission to allow community broadcasters to use the sixth channel that was for all new services—existing services were allowed to continue while it contemplated how the channel would be used in conjunction with the introduction of digital television.
The development of digital technology has delivered a new world of possibilities for broadcasters. Digital radio and television provides audiences with better sound, better pictures and innovative new features. Importantly, digital technology more efficiently uses broadcasting spectrum, thereby freeing up large portions for other uses, such as mobile telecommunications and mobile richard thornley option brokers. The process of conversion to digital operation has been expensive, however.
Governments and commercial and public service national broadcasters have long acknowledged this, but accepted that direct and indirect advantages to be gained from the conversion from analogue broadcasting would eventually outweigh the costs. In Marchthe Minister for Communications, Richard Alston, promised digital radio would be available to Australians bybut it was not until March that legislation was passed to implement a framework for digital radio services.
Richard thornley option brokers first digital radio services were introduced in areas where they were most likely to be commercially viable—Adelaide, Brisbane, Melbourne, Perth and Sydney. Richard thornley option brokers for the services occurred in May and June From the advocacy body, the CBAA, began to lobby the Government for funding to assist the community radio sector to weather the digital transition process. In a submission to the Senate Standing Committee on Environment, Information Technology and the Arts Environment, Information Technology and the Arts Committee inquiry into the digital radio legislation, the CBAA raised a number of concerns about how the legislative framework for transition to digital would affect community broadcasting.
Join Stack Overflow to learn, share knowledge, and build your career. I am going to be starting a new job soon and the company has previously had hobbyist developers working on their applications and as such not had to worry about supplying equipment for the developers. Having spoken to them they seem to understand that I will need a reasonable system in order to ensure I am both as productive as possible and happy working there. I will be working both in there office and from home about One option I have is to use a dedicated workstation at the office with dual screens which I can use in the office.
Another option is for them to get me a new laptop which would be something like dual core, 4gb ram, x and an external monitor so I can at least use 2 screens richard thornley option brokers if they richard thornley option brokers not the same size. Another option I am toying with right now, as I need to replace my old work laptop I work freelance in addition to this job is to finally richard thornley option brokers the move over to OS X and get myself a Mac Book Pro.
Therefore my thought here would be to see if they are willing to buy a 27" iMac which I can use to run some VM's etc in along with other services db, unit testing etc and I can then use its monitor with the Macbook while at the office. I could then take the work to and from the office and hook up the laptop to monitors at home and have a dedicated machine to run other intensive tasks. I am hoping someone can help me decide which route would be best to try and recommend the company to go.
In summary the options are:. In all 3 I would hope to still be able to edit and maintain code etc from home with code being in SVN. I think the main issues will be where email and documents go so I can have them on me all the time This question does not appear to be about programming within the scope defined in the help center.
If this question richard thornley option brokers be reworded to fit the rules in the help centerplease edit the richard thornley option brokers. You're going to want to continue to have a personal laptop. Given a choice, Richard thornley option brokers rather own a laptop and use it part-time for business than use somebody else's laptop for my own purposes, commercial or personal, or juggle two laptops. So, I'd ask for the best desktop development system I'd be likely to get, best being of course dependent on what you like, what you're doing, and company policy.
If you go for separate development machines at work and at home, you probably want richard thornley option brokers better system than trying to remember to check into Subversion at the end of each session.
If you keep your version of the project on your laptop at all times, that would eliminate the problem. Other than that, richard thornley option brokers you could connect into your work machine from home, and your home machine from work, you could either use a distributed VCS like Mercurial or Git on your own machines or just log in to commit the stuff you forgot when you left last time.
Ideally, the monitors will have the same RGB pattern. If you are using Windows with ClearType font rendering, it is important to have all monitors with the same pixel pattern -- otherwise the ClearType both looks funny, and causes a slowdown as you drag a window from one screen to the other. I realize you might not use Windows, as you stated, but thought I would through this out to you. There richard thornley option brokers someday be similar issues with non-Windows OS.
Also, I'm not sure if it matters for OSX at present, it might. I have a MacBook Pro laptop and am very happy with it as a dev platform. It's a unix environment that has beautiful tools I'm not looking at you, XCode and is a pretty well built machine.
The big advantage over using source control is that, even though SCM will allow you to work in different places especially a distributed SCM like Git or Mercurial the time will come when you will forget to push your changes - and if your workplace has any sort of security, going through firewalls, vpn, etc I think it's much better to be able to carry your one configured machine with you.
Email Sign Up or sign in with Google. Need advice on new development system and OS [closed] Richard thornley option brokers Question. Another option is for them to get me a new laptop which would be something like richard thornley option brokers core, 4gb richard thornley option brokers, x and an external monitor so I can at least use 2 screens even if they are not the same size Another option I am toying with right now, as I need to richard thornley option brokers my old work laptop I work freelance in addition to this job is to finally make the move over richard thornley option brokers OS X and get myself a Mac Book Pro.
In summary the options are: Kara 3, 9 39 This question appears to be off-topic on SO and is a better fit for programmers. I will certinly bear it in mind with regards to laptop with external display though. I know I have had similar issues in the past with respect to colours. Matt 8, 1 24 Do you tend to work off of just the laptops monitor?
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